Boy Scouts of America v. Dale, (2000) - HOMOSEXUALITY - Applying New Jersey's public accommodations law to require the Boy Scouts to admit Dale violates the Boy Scouts' First Amendment right of expressive association.  Scouts can ban homosexuals from the ranks.

Brown v. Board of Education,(1954)- SEPARATE BUT EQUAL SCHOOLS
Segregation of white and Negro children in the public schools of a State solely on the basis of race, pursuant to state laws permitting or requiring such segregation, denies to Negro children the equal protection of the laws guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment.Ended racial segregation of public schools in America.

Dred Scott v. Sandford, (1857) - SLAVERY
    Denied citizenship to slaves and allowed slavery in new states.

Engel v. Vitale, (1962) - PRAYER IN SCHOOLS
    State officials may not compose an official state prayer and require that it be recited in the public schools of the State at the beginning of each school day -- even if the prayer is denominationally neutral.  Agents of the state, including teachers, have no business instructing students to "pray," however, "silent meditation" is acceptable.

Epperson v. Arkansas, (1968) - TEACHING EVOLUTION
    A state may not forbid by law the teaching of the theory of evolution.

Gideon v. Wainwright, (1963) - RIGHT TO COUNSEL
    A state must provide you with a lawyer in a criminal case if you cannot afford one.

Hustler Magazine, Inc. v. Falwell, (1988) - LIBEL OF PUBLIC FIGURES
    In most cases public figures cannot sue a magazine for libel because of a parody that appears in the magazine, however distasteful.

Marbury v. Madison, (1803) - SUPREME COURT AUTHORITY
    Defined the authority of the US Supreme Court to interpret the US Constitution

Miller v. California, (1973) - OBSCENITY
        A work may be considered obscene and therefore subject to   state regulation where that work, taken as a whole, appeals to the prurient interest in sex; portrays, in a patently offensive way, sexual conduct specifically defined by the applicable state law; and, taken as a whole, does not have serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value.

McCulloch v. Maryland, (1819) IMPLIED CONGRESSIONAL POWERS
    The US Supreme Court would be the umpire in the federal system, and states couldn't tax the national government and Congress has implied powers.

Miranda v. Arizona, (1966) - CRIMINAL RIGHTS
    Criminal suspects must be informed of their 5th Amendment right against self-incrimination before being questioned by police.

Near v. Minnesota,(1931) - PRIOR RESTRAINT
    Prior restraint on publication is not allowed.  Governments may not pass laws making it illegal to criticize the government.

New Jersey v. T.L.O.(1985) - SCHOOL SEARCHES
    Public school students have a constitutional protection from unreasonable searches.

Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) - RACIAL SEGREGATION
    Established the, "separate-but-equal" doctrine for public facilities.  Overturned by the Brown decision.

Roe v. Wade (1973) - ABORTIONS
    Guarantees a woman's right to have an abortion in the first three months of pregnancy.  After that, states can regulate.

Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School Dist. (1969) - STUDENT SPEECH
    Students have freedom of expression at school unless it interferes with the learning process.

Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission (FEC) (2010)- SPENDING ON POLITICAL CAMPAIGNS - Corporate spending on political candidates campaigns is a form of speech protected under the 1st Amendment.

Obergefell v. Hodges (2015) - GAY MARRIAGE RIGHTS - the right to marry is guaranteed to same-sex couples in the United States.